Swaging is a metal forming process of reducing diameter of a rod or tube by forcing it into a die with the help of reciprocating blow. This plastically deforms the metal and force it to flow into die and acquires die cavity shape. The fundamental concept is similar to forging process but the difference is that it uses reciprocating die for repeated hammering, which forces the metal into die. The die cavity contain the exact shape which we want to produce on rod or tube. This process is used to form screw drivers, soldering iron tip etc.

It is a cold working process. The process takes place in two parts.In the first part of this process, a circular rod or tube is made by other metal forming processes like forging, extrudingdrawing etc. This rod have exact dimension which we require in final product. Now the actual swaging process occurs.

The second part is also known as rotary swaging in which rod or work piece made by other processes is held stationary into a swaging die and a movable die rotates around it. This rotating die has some reciprocating components which allow to strike the work piece at a rate 10 – 20 stroke per second. Many blows are required to complete forming of work piece. It forms a cavity according to the die on the work piece. This process is mainly used to point the end of the work piece or convert the end into desired shape as required in screw drivers, small hand tools etc. It is also used to produce hollow drive shaft, shock absorber etc.


Brake Booster is a brake safety component that is placed at intermediate position between brake pedal and brake master cylinder and works as force multiplication component that uses engine vacuum to multiply the force applied by the driver on the brake pedal before further sending it to the master cylinder which in turn provide effective braking as well as driver’s comfort in applying brakes.

Why brake booster is required?

1.)The brake force applied by the driver on the brake pedal is not enough to provide enough braking force to stop or de-accelerate the vehicle, so there is a need of multiplying the force initially and this multiplication of force is done by brake booster to cause an effective braking.

2.)We need brake booster for smooth actuation of brakes.

3.)Brake booster is considered as the preventive braking measure taken to prevent driver and passengers as it decreases the chances of brake failure and also as it makes the braking more efficient and helps in case of panic braking.
4.)In case of high speed super and hyper car which goes over 250 miles per hour the use of brake booster becomes very essential as they requires high braking force to stop or de-accelerate the vehicle at such a high speed.

5.)In case of heavy vehicle as due to their heavy weight the brake force or frictional force required to stop or de-accelerate such vehicles is quite high, which can be fulfilled by the use of brake booster.


Although most of us are aware with the purpose of objects like the headlight, courtesy light, and rear view mirror, yet, there still are many features of your automobile which may seem useless to you but do a great job. One such feature is the presence of black dots which stare at you, right in the face, from your windshield.
These black bands are called the FRIT, are baked in a ceramic paint. The car’s windshield is held in its place through sealant, which also keeps out the water during rainfall. However, the sealant can degrade on exposure to sun’s ultraviolet rays. Therefore, the frit protects it from excessive sunlight exposure. Besides that, the frit also helps in covering up the glue on the edge of the windshield, which would otherwise ruin the aesthetics of the car.

The black dots of varying gradient that rise from the frit make your car look aesthetically appealing as they form a nice contrast with the windshield.


Jet fuel more precisely known as “Jet-A”which can be understood as lead-free kerosene, much closer in structure to diesel fuel. Due to this characteristics,it can be used to fuel Turbine Engines as well as the Compression Engines. However, due to lack of lubrication properties, jet fuel will damage the engine.
The second factor that should be considered is that jet fuel has high heat content but car engines are not designed for it. Jet fuel does not vaporize very easily which creates problem in ignition in case of spark ignition engine.
It will be similar case of using diesel in a petrol engine. Some engines might endure this combination of fuels for some time, followed by misfires and eventually coming to a halt. Due to heavy nature of the Jet fuel, it will damage the fuel pump and the engine at large.
According to Manuel Martinez-Sanchez, an aeronautics and astronautics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the diesel engine might work using liquid Hydrogen. However, the temperature it requires is a staggering –432°F, hence the car engine would eventually freeze. Unfortunately, cars are not meant to go faster on Jet Fuel.
In conclusion, the car wouldn’t start in case of spark-ignition engines, wouldn’t run, and might catch fire. It might run for a small duration in case of diesel engines, but not without causing long-term damage.



It should be noted that sensitivity is a term associated with the measuring equipment whereas accuracy and precision are association with measuring process. Sensitivity means the ability of a measuring device to detect small differences in a quantity being measured. For instance if a very small change in voltage applied to 2 voltmeters results in a perceptible change in the indication of one instrument and not in the other. Then the former (A0 is send to be more sensitive. Numerically it can be determined in this way for example if on a dial indicator the scale spacing is 1.0 mm and the scale division value is 0.01 mm then sensitivity =100. it is also called amplification factor or gearing ratio.


Readability refers to the case with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read. It is the susceptibility of a measuring device to have its indication converted into more meaningful number. Fine and widely spaced graduation lines ordinarily improve the readability. If the graduation lines are very finely spaced the scale will be more readable by using the microscope however with naked eye the readability will be poor.
In order to make micrometer more readable they are provided with vernier scale. It can also be improve by using magnifying devices.


It is the ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results when measurement are
carried out
  • By same observer
  • With the same instrument
  • Under the same conditions
  • Without any change in location
  • Without change in the method of measurement
  • And the measurement is carried out in short interval of time.
It may be expressed quantitatively in terms of dispersion of the results.

4. Reproducibility

Reproducibility is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement i.e closeness of the agreement between the results of measurement of the same quantity when individual measurement are carried out
  1. By different observer
  2. By different methods
  3. Using different instruments
  4. Under different condition, location and times.
It may also be expressed quantitatively in terms of dispersion of the results.


  • The calibration of any measuring instrument is necessary for the sake of accruing of measurement process. It is the process of framing the scale of the instrument by applying some standard (known) signals calibration is a pre-measurement process generally carried out by manufactures.
  • It is carried out by making adjustment such that the read out device produces zero output for zero measured input similarly it should display output equipment to the known measured input near the full scale input value.
  • If accuracy is to be maintained the instrument must be checked and recalibration if necessary.
  • As far as possible the calibration should be performed under similar environmental condition with the environment of actual measurement

    Magnification means increasing the magnitude of output signal of measuring instrument many times to make it more readable. The degree of magnification should bear some relation to the accuracy of measurement desired and should not be larger than necessary. Generally the greater the magnification the smaller is the range of measurement.


Now a days petrol engines are equipped with fuel injectors instead of carburetors which used to mix air and fuel and then send into combustion chamber.Why are we doing this and what is this technology known as,we will explore this in this post.

In petrol engines, air and fuel are mixed by carburetor and then sent into combustion chamber which is then ignited by spark plug.The problem with carburetor is that it is less efficient because it can not make mixture properly during varying driving conditions and at high altitudes.So,a technology was introduced that injects the fuel directly into combustion chamber like diesel engine and this mixture is ignited by spark plug.This technology is known as GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION.

Working of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI):

An engine equipped with GDI has ECU(Electronic Control Unit) and various sensors.These sensors in the engine keeps an eye on various conditions of the engine like engine speed, temperature, load, intake air, exhaust air etc.

 Based on all these sensors ECU calculates the fuel flow.There is a high pressure petrol/gasoline rail or line, which is connected with injector, so all the injectors have fuel at same pressure. These injectors put fuel directly into engine cylinder as and when instructed by the ECU.In GDI, the fuel injection of gasoline takes place directly in individual cylinders of the engine and not in a common intake manifold as in case of MPFI. This improves the engine efficiency as well as the performance. GDI is also known by many other names like DGCI, CGI etc.

Advantages of GDI:

  1. The calculations done are very quick and direct injection into the cylinder makes the running of engine extremely efficient as compared with carburettor or MPFI.
  2. GDI engines support Ultra Lean Burn technology in which the engine is fed with very little gasoline when the load on the engine is very low.This results in better fuel economy.
  3. It results in complete combustion of fuel which results in low pollution and emissions.
  4. Better acceleration.

Limitations of GDI:

  1. Cost is slightly high as compared to carburetor vehicle.
  2. Skilled person is required for maintenance as it contains sensors and ECU.


unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.For example, a length is a physical quantity. The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre".