You might have heard about PSLV and GSLV rocket launch systems developed by the Indian Space Research Organization, or ISRO, to launch satellites into orbit.In this article we will understand the difference between PSLV and GSLV.

Let us understand this by an example:

Meet my 2 friends Polar and Geo.

I asked both of them to throw a 1.5 kg stone up in the air. Whose stone will go higher?
If everything is right, then normally Geo's stone will go higher than Polar's. Right?
Now if you ask Polar to throw a 0.5 kg stone, he may be able to achieve the same height as Geo's 1.5 kg stone. Whereas, Geo maybe able to throw three or four 1 kg stones to the same height as achieved by Polar's 1 kg stone.

This is the basic difference between GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) and PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle).

Both PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) are the satellite-launch vehicles (rockets) developed by ISRO. The PSLV is the older of the two and the GSLV even inherits some of the technologies of the former in its design.

The main reason behind the advent of the GSLV is the capability to lift greater loads into space. While the PSLV can only lift slightly over a ton of payload to GTO (Geostationary Transfer Orbit), the GSLV is capable of lifting more than double that with a rated capacity of 2 to 2.5 tons. One of the main reasons why the GSLV has such an increased load is its utilization of a cryogenic rocket engine for its last stage. The cryogenic rocket engine provides more thrust than conventional liquid rocket engines but the fuel and oxidizer needs to be super cooled in order to keep them in a liquid state.

PSLV is a four-staged launch vehicle with first and third stage using solid rocket motors and second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines. It also uses strap-on motors to augment the thrust provided by the first stage, and depending on the number of these strap-on boosters, the PSLV is classified into its various versions like core-alone version (PSLV-CA), PSLV-G or PSLV-XL variants.

The GSLV is designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the highly elliptical (typically 250 x 36000 Km) Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The satellite in GTO is further raised to its final destination, viz., Geo-synchronous Earth orbit (GEO) of about 36000 Km altitude (and zero deg inclination on equatorial plane) by firing its in-built on-board engines.
When you look at their track records, it is easy to see that the PSLV is more reliable. With 18 launches, 16 of those were successes while only the first one was a total failure; the remaining one is called a partial failure as the satellite did not reach the intended altitude. The 7 launches of the GSLV have had worse results with 4 ending in failure and only two successes; it also has one partial failure launch.
In short:
1.The PSLV is older than the GSLV
2.The GSLV has a much greater load capacity than the PSLV
3.The GSLV use cryogenic fuel while the PSLV doesn’t
4.The GSLV has three stages while the PSLV has four stages
5.The GSLV has 4 liquid boosters while the PSLV has 6 solid boosters
6.The PSLV is more reliable than the GSLV


Tractors are extremely important agricultural vehicles. These machines are ubiquitous across the globe and range from rather small lawn tractors to giant monster worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. However, most of them have something in common – their exhaust pipes are pointing straight up in front of the driver’s cab. Meanwhile exhaust pipes of cars are located at the back, typically at bottom of the vehicle. Why is that? We will discuss the reason behind the vertical exhaust in this article.


Following are the reason why tractors have vertical exhaust :

1) Tractor is a off-road vehicle, usually used in every terrain including water dominated areas, where, there are chances of water to get in exhaust pipe and causing harm to the engine and exhaust system itself.

2) Mounting the exhaust pipe in the front has an added cost advantage – that’s where the engine is and less pipework is required this way. Less pipework – less maintenance as well.

3) Many chemicals are spread on crops or plants by driving tractor on the space between plants. If exhaust system is horizontal and below the driver them harmful and hot emissions can harm the crop.

4.)A normal tractor is constituted of two major parts – it can be split in two, which is occasionally done to repair transmission. Having an exhaust running from front to back would make such repairs hardly possible or very difficult.

Special note - Sometimes the end of exhaust pipe is curved, or has a hinged cover flap which the gas flow blows out of the way, to try to prevent foreign objects (including droppings from a bird perching, rain drops, ice on the exhaust pipe when the vehicle is not being used) getting inside the exhaust pipe.


You might have wondered why does almost every motorcycle have its exhaust placed on the right, and not the left?It is not a design constraint as such and you can have the silencer on the left as well. But there could be many reasons otherwise.We will discuss these reasons in this article.

Manufacturers have just stuck to the design that was implemented on the very first internal combustion-powered, single-cylinder motorcycles.The first motorbike without pedal was having exhaust on the right side. Since then manufacturers decided to mount the exhaust on the right side of the motorcycle.

Apart from this other reasons that are important to consider are as follows:

1. The exhaust fumes would be a little farther from the pedestrain walking sidewalks on the left.

2. Lot of women and old people sit sideways and it is much more safer to disembark them to the left. Silencer to the right helps with that.

3. Usually, there's a chain sprocket on the left side and having the silencer on the right balances the mass to some extent.

4. The way we learn to ride a bike, usually the left foot comes off the foot rest first when we are braking to a stop. Having the silencer to the right minimizes the risk of the foot coming in the proximity to the hot exhaust pipes.

But,it need not to be necessarily on right . Sports bikes have both sides , some have under the seat. But in general the exhaust is placed on the right side for above reasons.


Sometimes when you buy a strip of medicine (tablets), you notice of empty slots. Irrespective of the exact shape of the tablet, it can be round, rectangle, oval; every strip is packaged in this typical design-geometry.We will understand the reason behind the empty slots in this article.

Reason 1:

To keep up the standard size of the packing boxes, the company adds these extra spaces to avoid the extra cost.

Reason 2:

Since these tablets are small in size, but the minimum information required to be given on them is quite a lot, so the overall size of packaging is generally large so as to accommodate all relevant information.

Reason 3:

These extra empty spaces help to avoid breakage and spilling of medicines during transportation. This is one of the most important reasons why these empty spaces are there.

Reason 4:

This is a tricky one where our mind would get fooled by the packing. Extra spaciousness gives a feel that the tablet is worth the cost. But the actual fact is that it does not cost even an extra penny for the special packing!

Reason 5:

Empty space left is to increase the inertness of the tablet by pumping vacuum or inert gases inside the empty space. If air is present inside the empty space, then the tablets might get oxidized resulting in poor performance of the medicine.

Hope,this article might have helped you to understand the logic behiend those empty space.


Printed Circuit Boards are commonly known as PCB. There are electrical and electronic components are connected on the board. In the designing phase any pcb is connected via wires for testing purpose. It is very complex and very hard to test. The wire connections are not suitable for large applications like motherboard. Components are internally connected without wires in the PCB which decreases the overall complexity. PCBs can design as per the requirements. It is found in most of electronic devices like TV, Cell Phones, Computers, Camera etc. It is also used in communication devices, defence equipment etc. India Circuit is leading pcb manufacturing companies in india.

There are two types of Mounting processes are used Through-hole and Surface mounted.

First is through-hole PCB. There are holes made on the circuit to mount the leads of the components and it soldered on the other side of PCB. In the through-hole process the components have support from PCB for performance and this is widely used for mount the components on PCB. As there are holes are drilled in the PCB the manufacturing cost is increased. This is suitable for single-sided PCB but for double or multilayer it is not recommended.

The next method is surface mount. In this process there is small size components with small or no leads are used. In this process the components are directly mounted on the board and the holes are not required to mount. After mounting process, the solder paste is applied to hold components on the surface of PCB.

PCB construction is depending on the requirements. It is in single layer, double layer or multilayer.

Single Sided PCB

Double Sided PCB

Multilayer PCB

Rigid PCB

Flexible PCB

Rigid-flex PCB

Single Sided PCB 

First in the list is single-sided PCB. It is also called single layer PCB. It is widely used as it has simple design and easily manufactured. There is copper applied on the one side of PCB as the copper has better electric conductivity than other materials. The solder mask is applied to prevent the damage in the process of silkscreen coat for marking of components on the PCB. There is an electric component on the single side. The components are soldered on the other side of the PCB. Single sided PCBs are cost effective and it is best option for bulk manufacturing. Single sided PCBs are used in devices like printers, calculators etc.

Double Sided PCB

It is also known as double layer PCB. There is copper coat on the single side and in the double side the copper coating is on the both sides. The two layers are connected with hole made on the surface. The price of double side is low and are suitable to make complex circuit with compact size. Double sided PCBs are used in gaming motherboard, gaming pc, mobile phones, Inverter, Amplifies etc.

Multi-Layer PCB

There are more than two conductive layers in the multilayer PCB. There is glue is applied between layers to protect components from heat produced while performance. It is used for a complex circuit with compact size for best performance. This type of PCBs is used in satellite system, data servers etc.

Rigid PCB 

Rigid PCB is made from solid material which is very strong. It can be made in single layer, double layer and multilayer. The shape of PCB remains same after installation. It is not bent as per base. Rigid PCBs are long lasting. This PCBs is used in CPU, RAM and GPU. Single sided rigid PCBs are most used as it has simple design.

Flexible PCB

The material in the PCB makes it flexible. There is conductive plastic is used. Flexible PCBs are used where the rigid PCBs is not. It has very complex design and it is made in single sided, double sided and multilayer. This is used in LED, Solar Panel, Laptops etc.

Rigid-Flex PCB

This is a mixture of the Rigid and Flexible technique. Rigid-Flex contains number of rigid circuits are connect with flexible circuits. It is used in camera, cell phones etc.

We hope that this information is helpful to choose PCB according to your need.

India Circuit is leading PCB manufacturer in India.


PVC pipes are used in many ways and commonly used for water transport for drinking purpose. It is also used as removal of waste products to drainage from the roof or grounds.

For Drinking Water

The PVC pipes are used for supply water with control pressure. The main purpose is to distribute the drinking water. The pipes are used for it are medium-size and the diameter is between 75 mm and 250 mm.

The pipes are used for irrigation have same geometrical and mechanical characteristics.

Soil and Waste

Pipes are also used for waste water disposal as there are no pressure required and it is used inside building. It has medium diameter of 160 mm makes it compact PVC.

Sewage and Underground Drainage

The pipes and fittings are used underground horizontally for collection and disposal of waste water. The diameter of pipes is between 160 mm and 630 mm.


There are also a above-ground rainwater products like gutter and downpipes are available between 50 mm and 160 mm. It is available in both domestic and industrial use. For this application pipes are designed to use outside.

Hot and Cold

The chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipes and fittings handle both hot and cold water for heating water system installation. These pipes are hot water pressure resistance.

Other Applications

Cable Protection

This type of pipe is used to protect electric cable inside. There is may be corrugated or smooth and having diameter of maximum 25 mm. There is also a larger diameter pipes of 50-100 mm used for underground cable protection made with compact PVC.


There are many types of pipes, fittings and valves are available with various diameter. There are many designs and connections are made with fittings. It has many varieties like straight pipes, bends, branches, tees, reducers, clips, brackets and many more. These can be joints with simply push-fit or with solvent cementing. This joint provide system with gaps and are easy to install.

Industrial Piping Application

PVC piping systems are used for long times for cooling water process, transport hazardous chemicals as the PVC is high corrosion resistance. It is highly suitable to transport toxic chemicals from one place to another. PVC pipes are economical beneficial, safe and has less maintenance.

Fire Sprinkler

The CPVC pipes are used in fire sprinkler. The fire sprinkler systems are installed in places like library, museum, theatre, office, hotel, high-rise buildings etc.

Looking for pvc pipe machine manufacturers, then we are leading pvc pipe machine manufacturers in India.


Manufacturers are known the difference between two blow moulding processes. It is quite difficult to understand the difference. Here we will explain the difference between injection blow moulding and extrusion blow moulding.

Let’s start with Extrusion Blow Moulding Process

Extrusion blow moulding is commonly used type of blow moulding. In this process the plastic is melted to its boiling temperature. The melted plastic is extruded into a hollow tube which is generally known as parison. After that the air is blown to plastic and inflated according to the mould. Then plastic is cool down and after sufficient cooled, the mould is opened and product is come out from mould.

The blow moulding products are used in Traffic safety products, Automotive Ducts, Stadium Seating and Chairs, Trays, Containers, Coolers, Reservoirs and Tanks, Stands, Floats, Toys and Sporting Goods, Panels and Doors, Household products and Watering Cans and many more. SMP is leading blow moulding machine manufacturer in India.

Now Injection Blow Moulding Process

Injection blow moulding is another type of blow moulding where polymer is injected into a core pin. After that the pin is rotate to blow moulding station and there it is inflated and cool down. This process is not so preferred and used only to manufacture particular items like syringes.

There are variety of products are made with injection blow moulding process like dropper bottles, jars, ovals-cylindrical and boston rounds, tablet and pill bottles and many more.

What is the difference?

The main difference between blow moulding and injection moulding is process used to make a product. There is two-dimensional product is made with extrusion blow moulding and there is three-dimensional product is manufacture with injection blow moulding process. The other difference is in the tool used in the processes.

The next difference is time taken to complete the process. The injection blow moulding process took less time than the extrusion blow moulding. The scrap or residue makes the difference between two processes. In the extrusion blow moulding process, the scrap is with flash and trimming where the other have no flash and trimming. There is also difference in part thickness of machine used in extrusion and injection blow moulding processes. The part thickness is depending on the how much material is stretched in the extrusion blow moulding and with the injection it is on the relationship between core and mold.

The extrusion blow moulding process is simple then the injection moulding process. It is also depending on the material used from poor to excellent. The styrene is commonly used in the process which is poor material. The PP and PC are balanced products where HDPE is suitable for extrusion process.

The materials like Styrene, PP, PC and HDPE are suitable for injection process.

If you want to buy a Blow Moulding, SMP is leading HDPE blow moulding machine manufacturer in India.